Probably most famously was Genesis with Phil Collins and Chester Thompson, but this was somewhat common in the 70s. Why? I have no idea. On a rare occasion you'd get a group like Stuff!, who would let Steve Gadd and Chris Parker (and sometimes Grady Tate) create multiple rhythms. Usually you got a band like the Allman Brothers, where double drums were just a sign of their excess, and didn't really serve a bigger purpose that I know of.
King Crimson is another prominent band that I can think of.
I want to say Kansas, but I think they were better known for having 14 guitarists for no apparent reason rather than more than one drummer at the same time.
One of the bands I play with (Bentmen), has nearly always used at least 2 drummers (except for a year in the late 90s when I was the only drummer). At our last show, we had up to 6 drummers (two full kits plus various stand-up percussion stations). http://www.myspace.com/bentmen
these are probably going to be bands you've never heard of but i can think of a few.
Some Girls uses 2 drummers when they tour, for a couple of songs
This local band called Grilly Biggs had two drummers (I took lessons from one) im pretty sure you can find them on myspace.
Plenty of "classic rock" bands used two drummers, like the ones listed above and i think the alleman brothers and the doobie brothers both used two. I really don't think that both drumers play two unique things, they might compliment each other, and I think that most of these bands have one doing the "drumming" laying down the beat and one will play on top of it with say.. latin percussion and accessories.
I know that there are a few death metal bands that have two drummers, but the names aren't coming to mind right now.
The best use of two drummers in a band that I've ever heard was King Crimson in 1995. Bruford and Mastelotto were amazing together. Check out the "On Broadway" 2CD set from that tour, or the live DVD "Deja Vrooom".
Well, since my band has TWO DRUMMERS, I can tell you of a few others that did too:
1. Charlie Daniels Band
2. Adam and the Ants (whose drummers then wentr to)
3. Bow Wow Wow
5. Bottom 12
6. Grateful Dead
7. Acid Mothers Temple (sick band from Japan)
8. CAKECUTTER (my band - check myspace.com/cakecutter)
If you do check out my act, just know that we've recently had a member change (uh, singer) and are limiting the info on the site (only on song is posted there, and both us drummers sing it).
It's a bitch to sing and play...that should be a topic!
Oh, and then there's CHRIS PONTIUS (from Jackass) my partner in Cakcutter and I also play with him...go look up Chris Pontius the Barbarian...you'll probably see some video of us play on Karazy).
I don't want to be thought of as someone who automatically needs to get flamed here, but Slipknot. lol
They have the normal drums, and then 2 or 3 percussionists... I mean hell... 9 members in their band! :O
Dick Dale had two drummers on his Unknown Territory album. I am not sure if they both played together on ALL of the tracks, but there's one with a two drummer drum solo section (I think it's called Take It or Leave it but I could be wrong) and it is real awesome.